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Pamela Clark

Pamela Clark, CRNI, is an infusion nurse with the Houston Methodist Sugar Land Hospital.  She has more than 35 years of experience in infusion therapy and infusion education with both licensed nurses and patients. Her experience spans multiple infusion settings including: acute care, long-term care, home infusion, and ambulatory infusion care. She also has experience in oncology and oncology research.

Read Pamela Clark's Full Bio...

Class Accreditation

All states recognize our courses for accredited continuing nursing education, CNE, contact hours. This course is accredited by the following boards:

Provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider # CEP 15467.

Provider approved by the Arkansas, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, South Carolina, and West Virginia Boards of Nursing through CE Broker, CE Provider #: 50-13256.  

Drug Misuse, Abuse and Diversion for West Virginia Healthcare Professionals

Contact Hours: 1
Cost: $10.00

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Drug Misuse, Abuse and Diversion for West Virginia Healthcare Professionals
Nurses practicing in West Virginia are required, by law, to complete at least 3 contact hours of continuing education on the subject of prescription drug abuse and diversion initially and at least one contact hour every year thereafter. In order to satisfy the initial CE requirement, this course should be completed in combination with another course of at least two contact hours such as Pedagogy’s Current Concepts in Pain Management. The combination provides both general knowledge regarding pain management and West Virginia’s specific efforts to curb prescription substance abuse. This course meets the one contact-hour annual requirement for healthcare professionals who prescribe, dispense, and/or administer Schedule II – IV controlled substances and may be completed as a stand-alone course for that purpose.


Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to:
  1. Explain the provisions of Senate Bill 437.
  2. Identify at least 3 factors that contributed to the rise of opioid use.
  3. Identify at least 5 patient addiction behaviors.
  4. Identify at least 5 additional healthcare professional addiction behaviors.
  5. Explain the provisions of The Impaired Nurse Treatment Program (INTP).
  6. Identify the 10 steps of Pain Management Universal Precautions.
  7. Discuss appropriate patient education regarding prescription drugs.
  8. Recognize at least 5 DEA “Red Flags” as it relates to drug misuse and/or diversion.


Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Legal Requirements

Chapter 3: Naloxone

Chapter 4: Rise of Opioid Abuse

Chapter 5: Avenues for Abuse/Diversion

Chapter 6: Patient Addiction Behaviors

Chapter 7: Healthcare Addiction Behaviors

Chapter 8: The Addicted Nurse

Chapter 9: Pain Management Universal Precautions

Chapter 10: Patient Education

Chapter 11: DEA “Red Flags”